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Exodus 8
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Exodus 8 from Scroll 4Q1 Genesis-Exodusa

24 Yahweh did so; and there came grievous swarms of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants’ houses. In all the land of Egypt the land was corrupted by reason of the swarms of flies.

25 Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God in the land!”

26 Moses said, “It isn’t appropriate to do so; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to Yahweh our God. Behold, if we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, won’t they stone us?

 

Exodus 8 from Scroll 4Q11 PaleoGenesis-Exodusl

17 They did so; and Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and struck the dust of the earth, and there were lice on man, and on animal; all the dust of the earth became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. 18 The magicians tried with their enchantments to produce lice, but they couldn’t. There were lice on man, and on animal. 19 Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is God’s finger;” but Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.

[..]

23 I will put a division between my people and your people. This sign shall happen by tomorrow.” ’ ” 24 Yahweh did so; and there came grievous swarms of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants’ houses. In all the land of Egypt the land was corrupted by reason of the swarms of flies.

25 Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God in the land!”

 

Exodus 8 from Scroll 4Q14 Exodusc

Yahweh spoke to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh, and tell him, “This is what Yahweh says, ‘Let my people go, that they may serve me. If you refuse to let them go, behold, I will plague all your borders with frogs: and the river shall swarm with frogs, which shall go up and come into your house, and into your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the house of your servants, and on your people, and into your ovens, and into your kneading troughs:

[..]

Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod over the rivers, over the streams, and over the pools, and cause frogs to come up on the land of Egypt.’ ”

[..]

9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “I give you the honor of setting the time that I should pray for you, and for your servants, and for your people, that the frogs be destroyed from you and your houses, and remain in the river only.”

10 Pharaoh said, “Tomorrow.”

Moses said, “Be it according to your word, that you may know that there is no one like Yahweh our God.

[..]

12 Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried to Yahweh concerning the frogs which he had brought on Pharaoh. 13 Yahweh did according to the word of Moses, and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the courts, and out of the fields.

[..]

15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, he hardened his heart, and didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.

16 Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod, and strike the dust of the earth, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.’ ” 17 They did so; and Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and struck the dust of the earth, and there were lice on man, and on animal; all the dust of the earth became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. 18 The magicians tried with their enchantments to produce lice, but they couldn’t. There were lice on man, and on animal.

[..]

20 Yahweh said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; behold, he comes out to the water; and tell him, ‘This is what Yahweh says, “Let my people go, that they may serve me. 21 Else, if you will not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you, and on your servants, and on your people, and into your houses. The houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground they are on. 22 I will set apart in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end you may know that I am Yahweh on the earth.

[..]

26 Moses said, “It isn’t appropriate to do so; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to Yahweh our God. Behold, if we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, won’t they stone us?

 

Exodus 8 from Scroll 4Q20 Exodusj

and the river shall swarm with frogs, which shall go up and come into your house, and into your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the house of all your servants, and on your people, and into your ovens, and into your kneading troughs: and the frogs shall come up both on you, and on your people, and on all your servants.’” Yahweh[1] said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod over the rivers, over the streams, and over the pools, and cause frogs to come up on the land of Egypt.’” And Moses said to Aaron, “Stretch out your hand…”

 

Exodus 8 from Scroll 4Q22 PaleoExodusm

The river will swarm with frogs, which will go up and come into your house, and into your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the house of your servants, and on your people, and into your ovens, and into your kneading troughs. The frogs shall come up both on you, and on your people, and on all your servants.” ’ ” Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod over the rivers, over the streams, and over the pools, and cause frogs to come up on the land of Egypt.’ ”

[..]

16 Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your rod, and strike the dust of the earth, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.’ ” 17 They did so; and Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and struck the dust of the earth, and there were lice on man, and on animal; all the dust of the earth became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. 18 The magicians tried with their enchantments to produce lice, but they couldn’t. There were lice on man, and on animal. 19 Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is God’s finger;” but Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.

20 Yahweh said to Moses, saying, “Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; behold, he comes out to the water; and tell him, ‘This is what Yahweh says, “Let my people go, that they may serve me. 21 Else, if you will not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you, and on your servants, and on your people, and into your houses. The houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground they are on. 22 I will set apart in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there, to the end you may know that I am Yahweh on the earth. 23 And Moses and Aaron entered before Pharaoh and said to him, “Yahweh says: ‘Let my people go, that they may serve me. For if you do not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you and on your servants and on your people and on your houses, and the houses of Egypt will be filled with swarms of flies, and also he land where they are. And on that day I will set apart the land of Goshen where my people dwell, that there will not be swarms of flies, in order that you may know that I am Yahweh in the midst of the land.[2] I will put a division between my people and your people. This sign shall happen by tomorrow.” ’ ” 24 Yahweh did so; and there came grievous swarms of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants’ houses. In all the land of Egypt the land was corrupted by reason of the swarms of flies.

25 Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God in the land!”

26 Moses said, “It isn’t appropriate to do so; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to Yahweh our God. Behold, if we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, won’t they stone us? 27 We will go three days’ journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to Yahweh our God, as he shall command us.”

 



[1] The name “Yahweh” is written in the Paleo-Hebrew script, unlike the rest of the scroll, which is in the usual later Hebrew script.

[2] This reading matches the Samaritan Pentateuch.

How to read these pages:

      The translation to the left is based on the World English Bible. Words in regular black font are words in the scrolls matching the traditional text for that passage.

      Words in italics cannot be seen in the scroll, since the scroll is fragmentary. These words are supplied for readability by the World English Bible translation.

      Words present in the scroll but with some letters unreadable or missing are in blue like this: blue. One Hebrew word often is translated into multiple English words, and when this occurs, all the English words are in blue.

      Words present in the scroll but with spelling differences that do not affect the meaning are in green like this: green. This is common in Hebrew.

      If the scroll is different from the traditional text, words in the traditional text that are missing from the text of the scroll are marked through in red like this: strike-through.

      If the scroll is different from the traditional text, words in the scroll that are not in the traditional text are underlined in red like this: new words.